When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you will be expected to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not. The chocolate essay uses the APA style of referencing, which is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, as the format is different: In that case the information comes before the author.
Such citations are called information-centred citations.
When the focus is more on who is saying it then the citation is written like this: Such citations are called author-centred citations. Try and achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing. Reference list In the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you must also follow.
Here are some examples from the chocolate essay: Include your in-text citations and reference list as part of your first draft. Redrafting your essay Leave yourself enough time to look at your essay more than once.
For a word essay you need at least three days to redraft your essay. Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can see how your essay develops and improves.
Here are the sorts of questions you should ask yourself: You can also look at other checklists such as this one on editing your own work. Now compare the above with the final draft: Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon.
At first, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form.
The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number of these realities will be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health.
Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug rather than a food.
Moreover, there is the possibility of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Take your time and be careful when redrafting—it will be worth it!
How do you write in an academic way? Imagine your essay as a kind of story. You are the principal storyteller, the internal voice of the writer, leading the reader through to your conclusion.
During the story, there are different voices that appear from time to time. These are the external voices citations that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you are saying and sometimes even giving an alternative perspective.
The external voices can be divided into two categories in your essay: The reader needs to know at all times whose voice they are hearing.
Is it your internal voice or the external voice of other authors? You might wonder how you can include your own voice and still sound academic when you are writing about a subject area in which you have little or no knowledge.
The internal voice of the writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors i. This is a balanced paragraph. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the topic sentence and also links together all of the sentences, using their own voice to lead into content which is provided by the external voices.
That is something your lecturers do not want to see. When you are drafting your paragraphs, use a colour-coding system like the one used here. It will help you ensure your academic voice is clear! When you get more confident in using external sources, you will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice.
The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides examples of some more expressions to use when assessing external sources. Editing focuses on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether the question has been answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the details of your essay, such as formatting, grammar and punctuation. Everybody has their own personal style of editing and proofreading.Guidance counselors, administrators, and supervisors may also write academic letters of recommendation for students.
You can also ask for letters of recommendation before you graduate. This way you have some letters ready to go and can attach them to your resume or application right away. Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object.
Open education resources for academic writing. Learn how to format your reference list of sources cited in your study in APA style. These instructional pages offer examples of reference list entries for different types of sources as well as guidance on the variations for .
5. CGOS Style – Columbia Guide to Online Style. A specialized style guide for citing and creating electronic sources. It is a a special manual that addresses the complications and peculiarities associated with online publishing and offers the rules of online citation to students, researchers and the wide public.
Citing Electronic Sources in APA Format. LAC Guide (updated 3/15/11) APA reference formats for electronic sources can be confusing, particularly since electronic mediums and APA guidelines continue to evolve.
Listed here you’ll find samples of the most frequently used electronic sources followed by explanatory and advisory notes. WTS Writing Guides. Writing Resumes & Cover Letters. Make a strong impression when applying to jobs or graduate school with a well-designed resume and cover letter.