Preparing Manuscripts for Submission to Medical Journals:
One area of waste involves bias in reporting research, which compromises the usability of published reports. In response, there has been an upsurge in interest and research in the scientific process of writing, editing, peer reviewing, and publishing that is, journalology of biomedical research.
One reason for bias in reporting and the problem of unusable reports could be due to authors lacking knowledge or engaging in questionable practices while designing, conducting, or reporting their research.
Another might be that the peer review process for journal publication has serious flaws, including possibly being ineffective, and having poorly trained and poorly motivated reviewers.
Similarly, many journal editors have limited knowledge related to publication ethics. This can ultimately have a negative impact on the healthcare system. There have been repeated calls for better, more numerous training opportunities in writing for publication, peer review, and publishing.
However, little research has taken stock of journalology training opportunities or evaluations of their effectiveness. We will conduct a systematic review to synthesize studies that evaluate the effectiveness of training programs in journalology.
A comprehensive three-phase search approach will be employed to identify evaluations of training opportunities, involving: This project aims to provide evidence to help guide the journalological training of authors, peer reviewers, and editors.
|Recommendations||Characteristics[ edit ] A systematic review aims to provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current literature relevant to a research question.|
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While there is ample evidence that many members of these groups are not getting the necessary training needed to excel at their respective journalology-related tasks, little is known about the characteristics of existing training opportunities, including their effectiveness.
The proposed systematic review will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of training, therefore giving potential trainees, course designers, and decision-makers evidence to help inform their choices and policies regarding the merits of specific training opportunities or types of training.
Systematic Reviews2: Chalmers and Glasziou iden tified fo ur areas of waste related to: In response to this, there has been an upsurge in interest and research on topics such as publi- cation ethics, research integrity, and rigor in the scien- tificprocessofwriting,editing,peerreviewing,and publishing that isjournalology of biomedical research.
Bias in reporting and the problem of unusable reports can be attributed to shortcomings at both the production and publication phases of the research process. On one hand, some authors lack knowledge or engage in question- able practices while designing, conducting, or reporting their research.
On the other hand, the peer review process for both grant giving and journal publication has serious flaws, including claims of being ineffective , as well as having poorly trained and poorly motivated reviewers.
Similarly, many journal editors lack formal training [4,5], as well as having poor knowledge related to publication ethics .
While the causes for this type of research waste may be varied, the consequences for decision-makers, knowledge usersand tax-paying healthcare patient s are ultimately negative, as indicated by Dickerson and Chalmers in their report on this topic: Biased reporting o f clinical research can result in over- estimates of beneficial effect s  and suppre ssion of harmful effect s of treatments .
The lack of formal training appears to be widespread not only among authors of health research, but also among the gatekeepers of health literature - journal peer reviewers and editors, and at earlier stages, grant peer reviewers.
This may be one potential reason for the large amount of waste in biomedical research. Murray  suggests that most academics have no formal training in writing for publication and that they developed their skills mainly through a process of trial and error.
In addition, the rates of author misconduct , of which most incidences stem from negligence, poorly performed science, investigator bias, or lack of know- ledge, rather than acts of fraud , suggest a need for better training among authors on journalological issues.
Meanwhile, Keen  argued that, while there is a wealth of literature describing how to go about writin g for publication, the provision of information alone may be insufficient to support potential authors. In addit ion, Ea stwood  suggested that professional training op- portunities may be lacking due to a faulty assumption that trainees could not have achieved their postdoctoral status without having acquired an education in critical reading and writing.
Peer reviewers have difficulty identifying major errors in articles submitted for publi- cation  and in some cases agree ment between reviewers of the same manuscript is not much different than would be expected by chance . Similarly, the peer review process used by granting agencies also appears to be problematic.
A survey of 29 international granting agencies indicated that several aspe cts of their peer re view process were poor and had not improved in the preceding 5 years, including difficulty retaining good reviewers, reviewers carrying out poor quality reviewsand reviewers not following guidelines appropriately .Systematic review protocol—In the context of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a protocol is a document that presents an explicit scientific “road map” of a planned, uninitiated.
Objective To evaluate the breadth, validity, and presence of biases of the associations of vitamin D with diverse outcomes. Design Umbrella review of the evidence across systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma hydroxyvitamin D or 1,dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations and randomised .
Systematic literature review (SLR) guidance N.B. The SLR is only undertaken by trainees in the cohort and earlier. The following guidelines have been prepared to help you with the systematic literature review. Gut delivers up-to-date, authoritative, clinically oriented coverage in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology.
The SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items for Randomized Trials) statement is an evidence-based tool developed through systematic review of a wide range of resources and consensus. It closely mirrors the CONSORT statement and reflects important ethical considerations. The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration.
The explanation and elaboration paper for this guideline was published simultaneously in 3 journals.