For much of the s and s, and even into the s, English Catholics faced persecution and worshipped underground. George Calvert and his sons, Cecilius Cecil and Leonard, decided to establish the colony of Maryland in the New World as a haven for Catholic refugees.
A black American writer, J. Saunders Redding, describes the arrival of a ship in North America in the year Sails furled, flag drooping at her rounded stern, she rode the tide in from the sea. She was a strange ship, indeed, by all accounts, a frightening ship, a ship of mystery.
Whether she was trader, privateer, or man-of-war no one knows. Through her bulwarks black-mouthed cannon yawned. The flag she flew was Dutch; her crew a motley. Her port of call, an English settlement, Jamestown, in the colony of Virginia.
She came, she traded, and shortly afterwards was gone. Probably no ship in modern history has carried a more portentous freight.
There is not a country in world history in which racism has been more important, for so long a time, as the United States. And the problem of "the color line," as W.
Du Bois put it, is still with us. So it is more than a purely historical question to ask: How does it start? How might it end? Or, to put it differently: Is it possible for whites and blacks to live together without hatred? If history can help answer these questions, then the beginnings of slavery in North America—a continent where we can trace the coming of the first whites and the first blacks—might supply at least a few clues.
Some historians think those first blacks in Virginia were considered as servants, like the white indentured servants brought from Europe. But the strong probability is that, even if they were listed as "servants" a more familiar category to the Englishthey were viewed as being different from white servants, were treated differently, and in fact were slaves.
In any case, slavery developed quickly into a regular institution, into the normal labor relation of blacks to whites in the New World.
With it developed that special racial feeling—whether hatred, or contempt, or pity, or patronization—that accompanied the inferior position of blacks in America for the next years —that combination of inferior status and derogatory thought we call racism.
Everything in the experience of the first white settlers acted as a pressure for the enslavement of blacks. The Virginians of were desperate for labor, to grow enough food to stay alive. Among them were survivors from the winter ofthe "starving time," when, crazed for want of food, they roamed the woods for nuts and berries, dug up graves to eat the corpses, and died in batches until five hundred colonists were reduced to sixty.
In the Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia is a document of which tells of the first twelve years of the Jamestown colony. The first settlement had a hundred persons, who had one small ladle of barley per meal.
When more people arrived, there was even less food. Many of the people lived in cavelike holes dug into the ground, and in the winter ofthey were A petitionby thirty colonists to the House of Burgesses, complaining against the twelve-year governorship of Sir Thomas Smith, said: In those 12 years of Sir Thomas Smith, his government, we aver that the colony for the most part remained in great want and misery under most severe and cruel laws The allowance in those times for a man was only eight ounces of meale and half a pint of peas for a day The Virginians needed labor, to grow corn for subsistence, to grow tobacco for export.
They had just figured out how to grow tobacco, and in they sent off the first cargo to England. Finding that, like all pleasureable drugs tainted with moral disapproval, it brought a high price, the planters, despite their high religious talk, were not going to ask questions about something so profitable.
They were outnumbered, and while, with superior firearms, they could massacre Indians, they would face massacre in return. They could not capture them and keep them enslaved; the Indians were tough, resourceful, defiant, and at home in these woods, as the transplanted Englishmen were not.
White servants had not yet been brought over in sufficient quantity. Besides, they did not come out of slavery, and did not have to do more than contract their labor for a few years to get their passage and a start in the New World.
As for the free white settlers, many of them were skilled craftsmen, or even men of leisure back in England, who were so little inclined to work the land that John Smith, in those early years, had to declare a kind of martial law, organize them into work gangs, and force them into the fields for survival.
There may have been a kind of frustrated rage at their own ineptitude, at the Indian superiority at taking care of themselves, that made the Virginians especially ready to become the masters of slaves. You knew that you were civilized, and they were savages But your superior technology had proved insufficient to extract anything.Humiliated by Berkeley, and convinced that the governor's Native American policy was still too soft, Bacon rallied another band of men, marched them into Jamestown, and demanded a commission to wage war against the Native Americans.
at Fort Snelling National Cemetery in Minneapolis. The eagle landed on the grave of Sgt Maurice Ruch, US Army Air Corps. A noted rifle marksman, he was stationed in the Aleutian Islands, served four years in the military, and earned a bronze star.
European Colonization Essay Examples. 23 total results. words. 1 page. The Struggles of the Man at Jamestown as the Most Frightening Aspect of Early American History. words. 2 pages. A Brief History of De-Colonization in the United States and Its Consequences.
1, words. Political cause: Early struggles for survival. Jamestown was England's first corporate colony (Joint-stock company). Conflict erupted between the settlers and natives causing trade to stop. Twenty-first century perspectives on the restrictiveness of early American voting ideas miss a point.
By eighteenth-century standards, Americans enjoyed considerable voting rights, according to Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, a University of Virginia history professor specializing in .
Early Struggles and the Development of the Tobacco Economy Poor health, lack of food, and fighting with native peoples took the lives of many of the original Jamestown settlers.
The winter of –, which became known as “the starving time,” came close to annihilating the colony.