The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in a book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck. Adolf Hitler's rise to power Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years to
Hannah Arendt[ edit ] Hannah Arendt was one of the first scholars to propose that the regimes of Hitler and Stalin could be grouped in the same political category. Not all totalitarian movements succeed in creating totalitarian governments once they gain power.
European imperialism of the nineteenth century also paved the way for totalitarianism, by legitimizing the concept of endless expansion.
Their target audience did not have to be persuaded to despise the other parties or the democratic system, because it consisted of people who already despised mainstream politics. As a result, totalitarian movements were free to use violence and terror against their opponents without fear that this might alienate their own supporters.
Indoctrination consists of the message that a totalitarian government promotes internally, to the members of the ruling party and that segment of the population which supports the government. Propaganda consists of the message that a totalitarian government seeks to promote in the outside world, and also among those parts of its own society which may not support the government.
According to Arendt, totalitarian governments did not merely use these appeals to supposed scientific laws as propaganda to manipulate others. Rather, totalitarian leaders like Hitler and Stalin genuinely believed that they were acting in accordance with immutable natural laws, to such an extent that they were willing to sacrifice the self-interest of their regimes for the sake of enacting those supposed laws.
The totalitarian leader does not rise to power by personally using violence or through any special organizational skills, but rather by controlling appointments of personnel within the party, so that all other prominent party members owe their positions to him. Even when the leader is not particularly competent and the members of his inner circle are aware of his deficiencies, they remain committed to him out of fear that without him the entire power structure would collapse.
According to Arendt, totalitarian governments must be constantly fighting enemies in order to survive.
This explains their apparently irrational behavior, for example when Hitler continued to make territorial demands even after he was offered everything he asked for in the Munich Agreementor when Stalin unleashed the Great Terror despite the fact that he faced no significant internal opposition.
Slaves were abused and killed for the sake of profit; concentration camp inmates were abused and killed because a totalitarian government needed to justify its existence. That is to say, most of the inmates had not actually committed any action against the regime.
He was the Chancellor of Germany from to and then served as dictator from and He oversaw fascist policies which act precipitated Holocaust, destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially caused by fire or nuclear war or a Jewish sacrificial offering which was . The Nazi Party of Germany aimed to create a ‘racially pure’ society between the years through to This society, or Volksgemeinschaft, was to contain Hitler’s ideological view on what a pure person, or Aryan should be. 1) World War II, in both the East and the West, was the result of the inducement of the British, American[, and French] interest groups and syndicates, as well as the the result of the scheme by Soviet Russia.
Totalitarian systems and autocracies[ edit ] The totalitarian paradigm in the comparative study of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union was further developed by Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinskiwho wrote extensively on this topic both individually and in collaboration. In particular, it is distinguished by a reliance on modern technology and mass legitimation.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that Nazism and Stalinism are not only similar to each other, but also represent a continuation or a return to the tradition of European absolute monarchy on certain levels.
This depends in part on the personal character of different leaders, but Friedrich and Brzezinski believe that there is also an underlying political cycle, in which rising discontent leads to increased repression up to the point at which the opposition is eliminated, then controls are relaxed until the next time that popular dissatisfaction begins to grow.
Totalitarianism can only exist after the creation of modern technology, because such technology is essential for propagandafor surveillance of the population, and for the operation of a secret police.
First, an official ideology that is supposed to be followed by all members of society, at least passively, and which promises to serve as a perfect guide towards some ultimate goal. Second, a single political partycomposed of the most enthusiastic supporters of the official ideology, representing an elite group within society no more than 10 percent of the populationand organized along strictly regimented lines.
Fourth, a similar monopoly held by the party over the mass media and all technological forms of communication. The dictator, whether Stalin, Hitler or Mussolini, holds supreme power. Friedrich and Brzezinski explicitly reject the claim that the Party, or any other institution, could provide a significant counterweight to the power of the dictator in Nazism or Stalinism.
This is partly due to the way that totalitarian governments arise. They come about when a militant ideological movement seizes power, so the first leader of a totalitarian government is usually the ideologue who built the movement that seized power, and subsequent leaders try to emulate him.
Friedrich points out that neither the Nazi nor the Stalinist government ever established any official line of succession or any mechanism to decide who would replace the dictator after his death.
There could never be any heir apparent, because such an heir would have been a threat to the power of the dictator while he was alive. Totalitarian Party[ edit ] Friedrich and Brzezinski also identify key similarities between the Nazi and Stalinist political parties, which set them apart from other types of political parties.
Rather, they strictly tested potential members, in a manner similar to exclusive clubs, and often engaged in political purges of the membership, expelling large numbers of people from their ranks and sometimes arresting and executing those expelled, such as in the Great Purge or the Night of the Long Knives.
While both Nazism and Stalinism required party members to display such total loyalty in practice, they differed in the way they dealt with it in theory.
Stalinism, meanwhile, denied that it did anything similar, and claimed instead to uphold democratic principles, with the Party Congress made up of elected delegates supposedly being the highest authority.
Thus, regardless of the differences in their underlying ideological claims, the Nazi and Stalinist parties were organized in practice along similar lines, with a rigid hierarchy and centralized leadership. Friedrich and Brzezinski argue, in agreement with Arendt, that Nazi and Stalinist leaders really believed in their respective ideologies and did not merely use them as tools to gain power.
Friedrich and Brzezinski also draw attention to the symbols used by Nazis and Stalinists to represent themselves. According to Friedrich and Brzezinski, the most effective terror is invisible to the people it affects.
They simply develop a habit of acting in a conformist manner and not questioning authority, without necessarily being aware that this is what they are doing.Video clip with English subtitles and English translation of an excerpt transcript of Adolf Hitler's Proclamation to the German Nation, delivered at the Sportspalast in Berlin, Germany - February 10, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG OM CH TD FRS PC (November 30, – January 24, ) was a British politician and statesman, best known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II.
He was Prime Minister of the UK from to and again from to He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in . The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, “whole” and kaustós, “burnt”), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, “the catastrophe”), was a genocide in which Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany and its .
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between and , when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all .
Top: Jewish Occupied Governments: USSR. These Christians are but a few of the ,, Christian innocents who were exterminated by the Anti-Christian Jewish Red Commissars in Russia under the orders of Trotsky, .
National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (/ ˈ n ɑː t s i ɪ z əm, ˈ n æ t-/), is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar .