Effluent limitations a Illegality of pollutant discharges except in compliance with law Except as in compliance with this section and sections,and of this title, the discharge of any pollutant by any person shall be unlawful. B Requirements for listing i Sufficient information The person petitioning for listing of an additional pollutant under this subsection shall submit to the Administrator sufficient information to make the determinations required by this subparagraph. C Requirements for filing of petitionsA petition for listing of a pollutant under this paragraph— i must be filed not later than days after the date of promulgation of an applicable effluent guideline under section of this title ; ii may be filed before promulgation of such guideline; and iii may be filed with an application for a modification under paragraph 1 with respect to the discharge of such pollutant.
Their policies and standpoints are based primarily on information developed through scientific practices, but they also reflect ethical concerns, including the conservation of the diversity and abundance of fish populations, and respect for life and life processes.
Further, these societies believe that their members are responsible not only for advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of fish and fisheries but also for improving human appreciation for these animals and the industries that they support.
All three societies actively promote research and the dissemination of information derived from that research. They also advocate respect for life processes, respect for the forms of life within various ecosystems, and the humane treatment of animals used in research investigations.
Fishes are worthy of experimental and observational research: Further, fishes are economically important through recreational and commercial activities in that they provide an important source of food for humans and other animals and are popular to catch and to observe. The authors of the Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research referred to hereinafter as the Guidelines are scientists, have respect for life, and are professionally trained in a multitude of disciplines.
The current version is in answer to the call for a periodic document review and update, with a similar suggestion noted herein. The understanding and welfare of animals used in research can be served best by using a multidisciplinary approach in which data and expertise are derived from such disciplines as ecology, behavioral studies, nutrition, genetics, toxicology, chemistry, endocrinology, physiology, anatomy, and fish health.
At the same time, understanding that research is conducted in a variety of human cultural settings is important. Ideally, scientific procedures, analytical methods, data interpretations, and conclusions based on scientific studies should be consistent across all cultures; however, personal belief systems can and do influence concepts regarding which practices and methods are, or are not, consistent with humane treatment of animals.
The and Guidelines not only reflect the scientific expertise of both UFR Committees but also provide a framework for the promotion of scientifically valid research on fish and fish habitats and for research that is conducted in a manner acceptable to the social communities within which the research takes place.
The Guidelines address both field and laboratory research with fishes and will serve as a resource document on topical themes. Specific information in response to United States laws is a focus here, yet these Guidelines can be applied and adapted internationally by investigators working within their own institutional infrastructure with regard to animal care and use committees.
Internet pathway links to various Web sites and documents are included; however, such pathways to online media may change. Acknowledgments The UFR Committees that produced the and Guidelines gave generously of their time and expertise by developing, updating, and revising sections. We thank peer reviewers: Finally, we acknowledge Bill Fisher, past AFS President, for appointing the current UFR Committee and current President Robert Hughes in helping AFS continue its tradition of advancing sound science and disseminating science-based fisheries information for the global protection, conservation, and sustainability of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems.
Hughes are also thanked for their careful reviews. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U. Jenkins, Chair, UFR Committee, Statement of Purpose The and Guidelines were developed to provide a structure that advances appropriate attention toward valid experimental designs and procedures with aquatic animals while ensuring humane treatment of the experimental subjects.
At a practical level, the Guidelines are intended to provide general recommendations on field and laboratory endeavors, such as sampling, holding, and handling fishes; to offer information on administrative matters, including regulations and permits; and to address typical ethical concerns, such as perceptions of pain or discomfort experienced by experimental subjects.
These Guidelines must be recognized as guidelines. They are not intended to provide detailed instructions but rather to alert investigators to a broad array of topics and concerns to consider prior to initiating study.
At a comprehensive level, the principles upon which these Guidelines are based are broadly applicable, and many of the described practices and approaches can be adapted to situations involving other aquatic animal species and conditions.
Understanding the differences between fishes and other vertebrates, especially mammals, is critically important to conducting scientifically sound research with fishes. Disparities in life histories and mortality rates in fishes versus other vertebrates are critical in designing sustainable sampling levels in fish populations.
The UFR Committee points out that 1 compared to mammalian populations, adult populations of many fish species persist despite very high natural mortality rates in juvenile stages by virtue of the fact that most species lay thousands or tens of thousands of eggs; 2 because of these mortality patterns, research on fishes, especially field research or research on early life stages, can involve, and often requires, much larger numbers of research subjects than does research on mammals; and 3 the animal handling and husbandry requirements for fishes are fundamentally different from those for mammals and other vertebrates, in general.
Policies, regulations, and recommendations developed for research on mammals, birds, reptiles, or even amphibians are frequently inappropriate for research with fishes.The glands of the endocrine system that regulate a women’s menstrual cycle are the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the ovaries.
The hypothalamus is the master gland of the system; it secretes Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormones (LHRH) and stimulates the pituitary gland to release Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-‐Stimulating Hormone (FSH).
After describing operations research as a general operations management strategy, this lesson covers the limitations and advantages of the method. Learn about why this method is applied in service.
Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or . The Public Inspection page on rutadeltambor.com offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's Federal Register issue.
The Public Inspection page may also include documents scheduled for later issues, at the request of the issuing agency. The earliest instances of what might today be called genetic algorithms appeared in the late s and early s, programmed on computers by evolutionary biologists who were explicitly seeking to model aspects of natural evolution.
The MISG, held in the first week of February at the City East Campus of the University of South Australia, brought together about professional industrial mathematicians and industry researchers for 5 days of intense collaboration.