Whichever approach is adopted, a starting point it to divides intellectual capital into several categories.
This translation by Elizabeth S. Kite first appeared in in The development of intelligence in children. Publications of the Training School at Vineland.
Before explaining these methods let us recall exactly the conditions of the problem which we are attempting to solve. Our purpose is to be able to measure the intellectual capacity of a child who is brought to us in order to know whether he is normal or retarded.
We should therefore, study his condition at the time and that only. We have nothing to do either with his past history or with his future; consequently we shall neglect his etiology, and we shall make no attempt to distinguish between acquired and congenital idiocy; for a stronger reason we shall set aside all consideration of pathological anatomy which might explain his intellectual deficiency.
So much for his past. As to that which concerns his future, we shall exercise the same abstinence; we do not attempt to establish or prepare a prognosis and we leave unanswered the question of whether this retardation is curable, or even improvable.
We shall limit ourselves to ascertaining the truth in regard to his present mental state. Furthermore, in the definition of this state, we should make some restrictions. Most subnormal children, especially those in the schools, are habitually grouped in two categories, those of backward intelligence, and those who are unstable.
This latter class, which certain alienists call moral imbeciles, do not necessarily manifest inferiority of intelligence; they are turbulent, vicious, rebellious to all discipline; they lack sequence of ideas, and probably power of attention. It is a matter of great delicacy to make the distinction between children who are unstable, and those who have rebellious dispositions.
Elsewhere we have insisted upon the necessity of instructors not treating as unstable, that is as pathological cases, those children whose character is not sympathetic with their own.
It would necessitate a long study, and probably a very difficult one, to establish the distinctive signs which separate the unstable from the undisciplined.
For the present we shall not take up this study. We shall set the unstable aside, and shall consider only that which bears upon those who are backward in intelligence. This is not, however, to be the only limitation of our subject because backward states of intelligence present several different types.
There is the insane type -- or the type of intellectual decay -- which consists in a progressive loss of former acquired intelligence. Many epileptics, who suffer from frequent attacks, progress toward insanity.
It would be possible and probably very important, to be able to make the distinction between those with decaying intelligence on the one hand, and those of inferior intelligence on the other.
But as we have determined to limit on this side also, the domain of our study, we shall rigorously exclude all forms of insanity and decay. Moreover we believe that these are rarely present in the schools, and need not be taken into consideration in the operation of new classes for subnormals.
Another distinction is made between those of inferior intelligence and degenerates. The latter are subjects in whom occur clearly defined, episodical phenomena, such as impulsions, obsessions, deliriums.
We shall eliminate the degenerates as well as the insane. Lastly, we should say a word upon our manner of studying those whom most alienists call idiots but whom we here call of inferior intelligence.
The exact nature of this inferiority is not known; and today without other proof, one very prudently refuses to liken this state to that of an arrest of normal development.
It certainly seems that the intelligence of these beings has undergone a certain arrest; but it does not follow that the disproportion between the degree of intelligence and the age is the only characteristic of their condition. There is also in many cases, most probably a deviation in the development, a perversion.
The idiot of fifteen years, who, like a baby of three, is making his first verbal attempts, can not be completely likened to a three-year old child, because the latter is normal, but the idiot is not. There exists therefore between them, necessarily, differences either apparent or hidden.
The careful study of idiots shows, among some of them at least, that whereas certain faculties are almost wanting, others are better developed.The Guide to Grammar and Writing is sponsored by the Capital Community College Foundation, a nonprofit c-3 organization that supports scholarships, faculty development, and curriculum rutadeltambor.com you feel we have provided something of value and wish to show your appreciation, you can assist the College and its students with a tax-deductible contribution.
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Venture capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange for equity, or an. Intellectual Capital Assessment Models in Clusters: A Literature Review The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on intellectual capital in clusters in order to identify and compare the main models to measure at the cluster level.