Background[ edit ] Currently, the Bureau of Labor Statistics computes each month average prices of different categories of goods and services in 38 different urban geographical areas, totaling 8, different elementary indices. From these, higher-level indices are obtained as weighted averages of these elementary indices, using different weights for different categories of goods and services nationwide or for different groups of consumers. The weights for CPI-U and CPI-W are currently updated in January of every even-numbered year to correct for "substitution bias", the idea that consumers will change their buying patterns to keep their cost of living from rising as quickly as inflation.
History of marketing thought In the s and 50s, marketing was dominated by the so-called classical schools of thought which were highly descriptive and relied Consumer price index case study of on case study approaches with only occasional use of interview methods.
At the end of the s, two important reports criticised marketing for its lack of methodological rigor, especially the failure to adopt mathematically-oriented behavioural science research methods. From the s, marketing began to shift is reliance away from economics and towards other disciplines, notably the behavioural sciences, including sociologyanthropology and clinical psychology.
This resulted in a new emphasis on the customer as a unit of analysis.
As a result, new substantive knowledge was added to the marketing discipline — including such ideas as opinion leadership, reference groups and brand loyalty. Market segmentationespecially demographic segmentation based on socioeconomic status SES index and household life-cycle, also became fashionable.
With the addition of consumer behaviour, the marketing discipline exhibited increasing scientific sophistication with respect to theory development and testing procedures. By the s, marketing began to adopt techniques used by motivation researchers including depth interviews, projective techniques, thematic apperception tests and a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Definition and explanation[ edit ] Consumer behaviour entails "all activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities. Consumer behaviour is concerned with: As a field of study, consumer behaviour is an applied social science.
Consumer behaviour analysis is the "use of behaviour principles, usually gained experimentally, to interpret human economic consumption.
Understanding purchasing and consumption behaviour is a key challenge for marketers. Consumer behaviour, in its broadest sense, is concerned with understanding both how purchase decisions are made and how products or services are consumed or experienced.
Consumers are active decision-makers. They decide what to purchase, often based on their disposable income or budget. They may change their preferences related to their budget and a range of other factors. Some purchase decisions are made by groups such as families, households or businesses while others are made by individuals.
When a purchase decision is made by a small group, such as a household, different members of the group may become involved at different stages of the decision process and may perform different roles. For example, one person may suggest the purchase category, another may search for product-related information while yet another may physically go to the store, buy the product and transport it home.
It is customary to think about the types of decision roles; such as: In a family unit, the adult female often makes brand choices on behalf of the entire household, while children can be important influencers The Initiator the person who proposes a brand or product for consideration something in return ; The Influencer someone who recommends a given brand; The Decider the person who makes the ultimate purchase decision; The Purchaser the one who orders or physically buys it; The User the person who uses or consumes the product.
The importance of children as influencers in a wide range of purchase contexts should never be underestimated and the phenomenon is known as pester power.
The decision model situates the black box in a broader environment which shows the interaction of external and internal stimuli e. The decision model assumes that purchase decisions do not occur in a vacuum.
Rather, they occur in real time and are affected by other stimuli, including external environmental stimuli and the consumer's momentary situation. The elements of the model include: In addition, the buyer's black box includes buyer characteristics and the decision process, which influence the buyer's responses.
The purchase of up-market perfumes, often bought as gifts, are high involvement decisions because the gift symbolises the relationship between the giver and the intended recipient The black box model considers the buyer's response as a result of a conscious, rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized a problem, and seeks to solve it through a commercial purchase.
In practice some purchase decisions, such as those made routinely or habitually, are not driven by a strong sense of problem-solving.
High involvement products are those that carry higher levels of risk and are often expensive, infrequent purchases. The consumer's purchase decision process: The strength of the need drives the entire decision process.The Mobile Playbook is a resource guide from Google to help businesses win with mobile.
It features insights, case studies and recommendations on how any business can operationalize mobile. Personal income increased percent in July after increasing percent in June. Wages and salaries, the largest component of personal income, increased percent in July, the same increase as in June.
Are extended warranties for cars worth it? Read the results of a Consumer Reports survey and learn what to do if you decide to buy a car extended warranty. Intermediaries – case study A person (later arrested for drug trafficking) made a financial investment (life insurance) of USD , by means of an insurance broker.
The year marked, in a sense, the th anniversary of the Consumer Price Index (CPI), because is the first year for which official CPI data became available. Are extended warranties for cars worth it? Read the results of a Consumer Reports survey and learn what to do if you decide to buy a car extended warranty.