Dominant values Dominant values are those that are widely shared amongst a group, community or culture.
Additionally, researchers have characterized significant levels of student resistance Powell, ; White et al.
There are a wide variety of excellent tools available to gather data on student perceptions. However, analyzing written comments or transcripts can be very labor intensive. The familiar end-of-semester student evaluations of courses and teachers use a combination of quantitative survey items and qualitative open-ended comments.
To draw the most valid conclusions possible from data collected through such tools, it is important for faculty to choose analyses most appropriate for the task. The review will also provide widely endorsed, straightforward recommendations for analysis methods with theory and empirical evidence to support analysis plans.
Our goal is to help education researchers plan attitudinal studies such that they avoid common pitfalls. We would also like to provide advice and references for supporting your approaches to analyzing and displaying attitudinal data.
Psychologists use such tools to assess phenomena of interest, such as beliefs, motivation, emotions, and perceptions that are theoretical constructs not directly observable and often composed of multiple facets.
The more psychologists know about the theoretical underpinnings of a construct, the more likely they are to develop reliable, valid, and useful scales DeVellis, Psychological constructs are often described as latent, meaning they are not directly observed but are instead inferred from direct measurements of theoretically related variables Lord and Novick, ; Borsboom et al.
The most important methodological concern to stress about scales designed to measure a latent construct is that they are not solely a collection of questions of interest to the researcher.
Instead, scales are composed of items that have been subjected to tests of validity to show that they can serve as reasonable proxies for the underlying construct they represent DeVellis, Bond and Fox use the history of the development of temperature measures as an analogy for better understanding measurement theory in the social sciences.
The estimate of temperature is indirect, because it is determined from the known effects of thermal energy on another variable, such as the expansion of mercury or the change in conductivity of an electrical resistor.
Similarly, in the social sciences, numerical representations of psychological attributes e. In this way, an attitudinal scale score serves as a proxy for the latent construct it is purported to measure, and researchers need to be prepared to defend the validity and limitations of their scale in representing it Clark and Watson, Just as one would not consider a single question adequate to evaluate a student's knowledge about a biology topic, one would not evaluate a complex construct, for example, engagement, with a single item.
A scale developed to evaluate engagement would undergo a rigorous, iterative validation process meant to determine the aspects of the underlying construct the scale represents and empirically test the hypothesized relationships between the construct and its observable proxy Clark and Watson, A measurement scale is composed of a collection of purposely constructed items backed up by empirical evidence of interrelationship and evidence that they represent the underlying construct Carifio and Perla, A minimum of six to eight items is recommended to provide for adequate considerations of generalizability, reliability, and validity Cronbach et al.
Table 1 lists scales for assessing attitudes in college-level biology students who have met standard criteria set for common tests of validity and reliability.Finally, it was merely assumed that attitudes toward a variety of concepts would all be equally relevant for predicting voting behavior; actually, this is an empirical question and attitudes toward the five different concepts should not merely have been summed, but entered in a regression analysis.
Personal values, belief and attitudes.
As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and attitudes that we have developed throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and how we view the world. Question: Analyze attitudes toward and evaluate the motivations behind the European acquisition of African colonies in the period to Documents: Identify how each document relates to the question.
To evaluate the accuracy of your attitudes toward aging, mark each of the following items true or false by clicking on T or F. Then click the Score button to check your accuracy.
1.T F By age 60 most couples have lost their capacity for satisfying sexual relations. Attitudes, Attributions and Social Cognition above may reveal negative attitudes towards immigrants in their behaviour, their self-reports may appear .
AP European History: DBQ Construction Worksheet Name: _____ Per: ___ Question: Analyze attitudes toward and evaluate the motivations behind the European acquisition of African colonies in .