Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies. In recent years, the field of education has seen an increase in the number of qualitative studies that include participant observation as a way to collect information. Qualitative methods of data collection, such as interviewing, observation, and document analysis, have been included under the umbrella term of "ethnographic methods" in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to discuss observation, particularly participant observation, as a tool for collecting data in qualitative research studies.
Advanced Search Abstract Objective To examine differences between families of children with and without overweight on parental control and support. Methods Twenty-eight families with an overweight child and a control group of 28 families with a normal weight child age range 7—13 years participated in the study.
Observations and self-reports of mealtime family functioning were administered and analyzed.
However, observations at mealtime indicated that in families with an overweight child, maladaptive control strategies were twice as prevalent, and less parental support was displayed.
Conclusions Self-reports and observations provide complementary information on how parents interact with their overweight children. Family-based treatment programs should include discussions on the adequate amount of parental control and support.
As the study of genetic susceptibility to overweight has not led to therapeutic options for children with overweight, research should be targeted to identifying specific environmental influences on childhood overweight.
Among others, energy intake and energy expenditure are two important factors frequently studied in this context Bouchard, A prolonged positive balance arrived at when energy intake exceeds the physical requirements can lead to the development of overweight.
In children, the energy intake is mainly influenced by the family context. Within this context, two major dimensions can be distinguished: Both dimensions can be applied in an adaptive or maladaptive way, and hence, maladaptive parenting is hypothesized as a risk factor for developing eating problems in children.
However, the literature reveals many inconsistencies. Especially, parental control on the dietary intake of children is a widely debated issue. A recent review by Faith, Scanlon, Birch, Francis, and Sherry shows two contradictory opinions regarding the effects of parental control on the eating behavior of children.
Applied to families with overweight children, this model suggests that parents will try to exert rigid control over the dietary intake of their children. Fisher and Birch tested and confirmed this overcontrol hypothesis in several studies. The studies suggest that too much control is maladaptive, especially in families with overweight children.
However, the findings were restricted to well-educated, two-parent families and hence need replication. Robinson, Kiernan, Matheson, and Haydelin a sample of third-grade children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, found for girls an inverse relationship between parental control and the degree of overweight in the children but no relationship for boys.
This finding is inconsistent with the overcontrol hypothesis and needs further clarification. In conclusion, the review of Faith et al. Furthermore, study outcomes were unrelated to child ethnicity but Faith et al.
Contrarily, associations differed by gender. Although most studies were cross-sectional, they suggest a causal mechanism between parental feeding style and overweight in young children.
It remains however unexplored, whether these specific parent interactions also maintain overweight problems once the child suffers from severe overweight. A closer look revealed that only a few studies reported on children of 8 years or older.
Although to our knowledge, five new studies were published after the review of Faith et al. Here, it was concluded that parental control can have a paradoxical effect, which is consistent with the findings of Faith et al.
In line with Birch and Fisherwe want to consider three child-feeding patterns that map on the taxonomy of parenting styles of Baumrind Authoritarian feeding is described in Patrick et al. The latter authors found evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding.
This feeding style was positively associated with the availability of fruits and vegetables, with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruits, and vegetables and with reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding, in contrast, was found to be negatively associated with the availability of fruits and vegetables.Observation of the Early Childhood An observation was held in the children'"s wing of Tarrant County Junior College.
A variety of children between the ages of two to six were observed in activities ranging from physical and . An Analysis of Children Between the Age of Two to Six in the Observation of Activities Ranging From Physical and Motor to Social and . Early childhood begins at the age of 4 years old to 6 years old.
During the early childhood stage young children become very physically active, their language become more complex, and the evolution of imaginative and elaborate nature of play occurs.
The Early Morning Learning Center at Gateway consisted of nineteen children ranging from ages 3 to 5 years old.
The center had five adult workers whose job it was to watch and help the children. cognitively and socially of two children, one male and one female, ages five and ten, respectively. Childhood Fryxell Child Observation For.
Child Observation Observation Assignment Description of children: All the children at Gerber Preschool are between the ages of 3 and 4 years old and mainly consist of lower to lower middle class Hispanic and Caucasian families.
Mya is a small statured 3 year old Hispanic Caucasian female, with light olive-toned skin, long brown hair, and. Classroom Observation Analysis. Abstract Many instructional approaches exist that have been developed to reach more students.
the class consists of 15 children ranging between five and six. As the children arrive each child places his or her backpacks and other belongings into his or her designated cubby. effect is too long .