Principles[ edit ] The Peace of Westphalia is considered by political scientists to be the beginning of the modern international system,     in which external powers should avoid interfering in another country's domestic affairs.
For example, Osiander[ who? The applicability and relevance of these principles have been questioned from the midth century onward from a variety of viewpoints.
Much of the debate has turned on the ideas of internationalism and globalizationwhich conflict[ how?
The origins of Westphalian sovereignty have been traced in the scholarly literature to the Peace of Westphalia Since neither the Catholics nor the Protestants had won a clear victory, the peace settlement established a status quo order in which states would refrain from interfering in each other's religious practices.
The Westphalian peace reflected a practical accommodation to reality, not a unique moral insight. It relied on a system of independent states refraining from interference in each other's domestic affairs and checking each other's ambitions through a general equilibrium of power.
No single claim to truth or universal rule had prevailed in Europe's contests. Instead, each state was assigned the attribute of sovereign power over its territory.
Each would acknowledge the domestic structures and religious vocations of its fellow states and refrain from challenging their existence. The Peace of Westphalia is said to have ended attempts to impose supranational authority on European states.
The "Westphalian" doctrine of states as independent agents was bolstered by the rise in 19th century thought of nationalismunder which legitimate states were assumed to correspond to nations —groups of people united by language and culture.
Although practical considerations still led powerful states to seek to influence the affairs of others, forcible intervention by one country in the domestic affairs of another was less frequent between and than in most previous and subsequent periods.
Much of the literature was primarily concerned with criticizing realist models of international politics in which the notion of the state as a unitary agent is taken as axiomatic. For one, the principle of sovereignty it relied on also produced the basis for rivalry, not community of states; exclusion, not integration.
Blair argued that globalization had made the Westphalian approach anachronistic.
A new notion of contingent sovereignty seems to be emerging, but it has not yet reached the point of international legitimacy. Neoconservatism in particular has developed this line of thinking further, asserting that a lack of democracy may foreshadow future humanitarian crises, or that democracy itself constitutes a human right, and therefore nation states not respecting democratic principles open themselves up to just war by other countries.
Defenders of Westphalia[ edit ] Although the Westphalian system developed in early modern Europeits staunchest defenders can now be found in the non-Western world.
The presidents of China and Russia issued a joint statement in vowing to "counter attempts to undermine the fundamental norms of the international law with the help of concepts such as 'humanitarian intervention' and 'limited sovereignty'". American political scientist Stephen Walt urged U. President Donald Trump to return to Westphalian principles, calling it a "sensible course" for American foreign policy.Europe was drowned in religious blood battles for over thirty years, and to end this tussle for sovereignty and religious dominance, a peace treaty was signed by the European powers in The Peace of Westphalia promoted principals of religious tolerance and equality.
Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of , which brought to an end the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years’ War.
The peace was negotiated, from , in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück.
The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, The Peace of Westphalia ended with the signing of two treaties between the empire and the new great powers, Sweden and France, and settled the conflicts inside the empire with their guarantees.
A new electorate was established for the exiled son of the revolt’s leader, the elector Palatine. Europe was drowned in religious blood battles for over thirty years, and to end this tussle for sovereignty and religious dominance, a peace treaty was signed by the European powers in The Peace of Westphalia promoted principals of .
The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War to an end. France and Sweden had already agreed at the Treaty of Hamburg that there should be a European return to the status quo of On 24 October , the Treaty of Westphalia was signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War.
Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 48 Issue 10 October The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe.